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Success Criterion 2.4.13 - Level AAA

Focus Appearance

When the keyboard focus indicator is visible, an area of the focus indicator meets all the following:

  • is at least as large as the area of a 2 CSS pixel thick perimeter of the unfocused component or sub-component, and

  • has a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 between the same pixels in the focused and unfocused states


  • The focus indicator is determined by the user agent and cannot be adjusted by the author, or

  • The focus indicator and the indicator's background color are not modified by the author.

Note: What is perceived as the user interface component or sub-component (to determine enclosure or size) depends on its visual presentation. The visual presentation includes the component's visible content, border, and component-specific background. It does not include shadow and glow effects outside the component's content, background, or border.

Note: Examples of sub-components that may receive a focus indicator are menu items in an opened drop-down menu, or focusable cells in a grid.

Note: Contrast calculations can be based on colors defined within the technology (such as HTML, CSS and SVG). Pixels modified by user agent resolution enhancements and anti-aliasing can be ignored.

The purpose of this Success Criterion is to ensure a keyboard focus indicator is clearly visible and discernible. Focus Appearance is closely related to 2.4.7 Focus Visible and 1.4.11 Non-text Contrast. Focus Visible requires that a visible focus indicator exists while a component has keyboard focus; Focus Appearance defines a minimum level of visibility. Where Non-text Contrast requires a component to have adequate contrast against the background in each of its states, Focus Appearance requires sufficient contrast for the focus indicator itself.



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